Marshland Cottages

Marshland Cottages, Rusper Road

Marshland Cottages seem to have been built in 1840 or early 1841. They were occupied by the time the first full census was taken in June of 1841, when they are described as New Cottages.

Site of the cottages

The site on which the cottages were built is the junction with the Rusper Road of a former unmade road or track down to Chaffolds Farm. The track ran due south, continuing the line of the Rusper Road where the present road turns east, and was part of a system of closely spaced north-south tracks which probably dated back to the settlement of the Low Weald in the pre-Norman eleventh century and possibly before.

Recent research strongly suggests that early Anglo-Saxon manors on the drier, more easily worked land of the North and South Downs each laid claim to a patch of the woodland in the Weald. This was a vital part of the manorial economy, providing timber for building, wood for everything from fuel and fencing to waggons and tools, and summer and autumn pasture for pigs and perhaps cattle. The earliest manors had their woodland close to them, while later manors had to make do with the areas deeper into the Weald. Each manor accessed its woodland by a track which ran as straight as possible between the two, and the result was a series of north-south tracks spaced about half a mile apart and modified only by the need to ford rivers at the easiest points.

As the population increased, ambitious younger sons of manorial lords carved new sub-manors out of their family’s woodland and settled the Low Weald. There is some evidence that this was taking place at about the time of the Norman conquest in 1066. Newdigate is not named in the Domesday Book of 1086, but there is good reason to believe that this was because it was split into un-named parcels of land described under other manors as ‘detached’. In the area of Marshlands, Marelands was a minor manor and Chaffolds Farm is very ancient in its origins.

The old tracks probably remained in general use for much of history. But when roads in the Weald began to be surfaced with broken stone (in Newdigate from 1819 onwards) only the more important roads were improved. As traffic concentrated onto those, lesser tracks survived only where they gave access to a farm or formed a useful short-cut between two places. Many gradually dropped out of use. Exactly why the surfaced road to Rusper bent eastwards at Marshlands Cottages instead of continuing south to Chaffolds Farm is not known, but once it was in place the farm probably found it easier to use the much shorter access eastwards to Rusper Road. The track northwards must have been abandoned before 1840 for Marshland Cottages to be built.

I have found nothing to suggest that there were any buildings on the site before about 1840. Although written documents such as the land tax returns (which run from 1780 to 1830) do not usually name cottages and are subject to interpretation, I cannot see any cottage or pair of cottages which are not otherwise accounted for and might be conceivably be Marshland Cottages. The first Ordnance Survey map of the area, which was published in 1816 at a scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, clearly shows the old road down to Chaffolds Farm without any building where it joins the Rusper Road.

Building of the cottages

In 1839 and 1840 a detailed survey of the parish was conducted in order to change the ancient system of tithing in kind to assessed cash payments. Farmers were traditionally required to give the church one-tenth of the produce of their land, whether this was arable crops or livestock. Their assessment led to frequent and sometimes very acrimonious disputes (the farmer of Greens, who held land in both Newdigate and Capel, was reported to have moved his stock across the parish boundary when Newdigate’s tithe assessor was due and then back again before Capel made its assessment in order to minimise his payment). So a legal mechanism was set up to convert tithes in kind to a fixed cash payment based on the area and quality of the land. The detailed surveys made for this purpose are a very useful local history resource.

Newdigate’s tithe apportionment was formally agreed in June 1840, although the published schedule and map were officially dated 1841 and 1843. Marshlands Cottages do not appear on the schedule at all. However they do appear on the map, where they have clearly been inserted as an afterthought. Cottages elsewhere in the parish are individually assessed, with the names of owner and occupier and the use of the land (‘cottage and garden’) and its area included in the schedule against the assigned plot number. But although Marshland Cottages are shown, they have no separate plot number and the boundary of their land is indicated with a dashed line. This is consistent with their having been built between the date at which the tithe apportionment was agreed and the date of publication of the map.

The Broadwood family had a London residence, but they lived for part of the year at Lyne, and owned a large estate covering much of southern Newdigate and parts of Capel and Rusper. They built several cottages for their workers at about this time. The population of Newdigate was increasing and there was a serious shortage of housing, with two or even three families were crammed together in one building. The traditional practice was for the unmarried farm workers to live in the farmhouse with the farmer’s family, sleeping in what were effectively dormitories in the attics; but this would have been considered inappropriate when Lyne was rebuilt as a ‘big house’.

Lyne needed a large staff; ‘indoor’ staff could live in the servants’ quarters, but they also needed to house their laundry workers, gardeners, grooms, and so on. Victorian morality and an increasing understanding of hygiene encouraged landowners to built properly designed and ventilated cottages with separate bedrooms for the parents, boys and girls, and the Broadwoods built at least three cottages at Lyne at about this time. Marshland Cottages were almost certainly also a product of this trend, but were built to house farm workers on the estate.

The top of the old track was probably a relatively useless corner of land, particularly as it would be very stony after decades of attempts to firm up the mud, so it was an obvious site for a pair of cottages. They could be built adjacent to the hard road and without encroaching much onto the productive land behind.

In the 1841 census the occupants were two farm labourers and their families. It is impossible to know which family lived in which cottage in most of the censuses. The census-taker visited each house in the parish in an order of his own choosing, which often changed between one census and the next, and we know from elsewhere in the parish that there was no consistency where pairs of semi-detached cottages were concerned; the nearest might be visited first, or a census-taker might always visit the cottage on the right (or left) side first.

1841 census: New Cottages

In 1841 one cottage was occupied by James Bishop and his extended family. This census collected much less information than later ones; the ages of adults were rounded up or down to the nearest five years, and the place of birth was merely given as whether or not in the county. This was unhelpful for Newdigate, since it abutted the Sussex border; a family might move just half a mile and still be recorded as ‘not born in county’. However some families remained in the parish at the following census, which gave accurate ages and places of birth, and sometimes information is available from other sources.

We can be fairly sure that James Bishop, aged ‘50’ and born in Surrey, was baptised at St. Peter’s on 9th March 1788, the son of Thomas and Mary Bishop, and was buried there on 17th December 1862 at the aged of 74. The census does not include his wife and does not tell us, as later ones would have, whether he was a widower, but it is very likely.

His youngest three sons were living with him: Henry aged 13, Sampson aged 11 and Benjamin aged 9, all born in Surrey. Later censuses tell us that Henry and Sampson were born in Ockley and only Benjamin in Newdigate, so the family came to Newdigate within a year or two of his birth in 1832. Interestingly the four youngest sons, James, Henry, Sampson and Benjamin, were all baptised at St. Peter’s in 1842, aged between 18 and 10. Possibly they were not baptised as babies, if the family were living some distance from the parish church. Alternatively the family may have been Quakers and did not have a baptism in the usual sense; there are several Quaker meeting houses in nearby parishes with strong congregations.

Living with the Bishops were Benjamin Weller, another farm labourer aged about 25 and not born in Surrey, his wife Caroline, aged about 20, and their 11-month-old daughter Mary, both born in Surrey. The parish registers reveal that Caroline was James Bishop’s daughter, and that she married Benjamin at St. Peter’s on 15th November 1840, five months after her daughter was born.

Henry and Caroline Weller left the parish before the 1851 census, and do not reappear here.

James Bishop also left the parish for a time, although by 1861 he was lodging in part of Clarks House in the village (on the site of Church Cottages). He died ‘after 4 days illness’ in 1862, aged 74.

In 1851 three of his sons were farm servants (agricultural labourers) in the parish: Henry was living (and by implication working) at Cudworth and Sampson at Marelands, while Benjamin was lodging at Wirmwood, in the village, and presumably working at one of the nearby farms. In 1861 Henry was boarding in the village, but although still an agricultural labourer, was described as a cripple; he died in 1865 aged only 38, and was then living at Workhouse Green, on the Parkgate Road. We have no idea what lead to his disablement and early death, but accidents in farm work were not uncommon; a bad fall from a hay waggon or rick is only one of the possibilities. Benjamin continued to live in Newdigate, marrying and having four children at the cottage now called Old Beam Brook, and in about 1879 becoming the farmer at Halesbridge Farm for fifteen years, after which he left the parish.

The second cottage was occupied in 1841 by Samuel Tugwell, a farm labourer aged ‘40’, with his wife Elizabeth and children Stephen aged 12, Caleb 9, and Ann 6, all born in Surrey.

Samuel’s parents were Thomas and Elizabeth (née Bachelor), who married at St. Peter’s in October 1817. Thomas was aged 20 or 21 at the time, but Elizabeth was under-age and required the consent of her parents. She was also four months pregnant with their first child, who was born in March 1818 and baptised at St. Peter’s six months later. The following three children were welcomed into the Quaker church in 1821, 1823 and finally Samuel on 11th October 1826; there was a strong Quaker presence in both Capel and Rusper. The youngest two children, Caleb and Ann, were baptised at St. Peter’s, but not until 1845 when they were aged 13 and 9.

The family left the parish before the 1851 census.

1851 census: New Cottages

In the nineteenth century almost everyone rented their homes. At the c.1840 tithe apportionment survey only five people owned the homes they lived in, and three of those were tiny self-built verge-of-road cottages. So it was a relatively simple matter to move from one rented cottage to another as your circumstances changed. Equally, if you lived in a tied cottage and changed your job, you moved to a new tied cottage, and many farm labourers appear to have moved from one farm to another frequently. The result was that although a few families stayed in one house for several decades, many moved repeatedly, sometimes every year or two. So it is no surprise that both occupiers of Marshland Cottages had changed by the time the 1851 census was taken; there may have been several others in the intervening ten years who are not recorded at all.

Thomas Bishop must have been a son of James Bishop, and had moved into one of Marshlands Cottages by 1851; he may have taken the tenancy over from his father, or moved there long after his parents left. His age is given as 30 (from later censuses more likely 31 or 32) and he was a farm labourer. He was born at Capel, so his parents had lived there for a time in Capel before moving to Ockley where his younger siblings were born, and then to Newdigate. His wife Harriet was 26 and born in Newdigate, the daughter of John and Jane Nash. They were married on 16th March 1845, and Thomas signed the register with an X, indicating that he was totally illiterate; this was not uncommon at the time, as schooling only became widely available after 1870, when it was made compulsory.

In 1851 their daughter Elizabeth was aged 4, and Thomas was 2. The baptisms of both were at St. Peter’s, as was that of another son, Frank, in 1852. Elizabeth’s baptism tells us that they were probably living in Newdigate by May 1846.

Living with them was Harriett’s mother Jane Nash, a widow aged 61. Her husband John, a farm labourer, had died in 1842, and she was without either income or savings, requiring parish relief to support her. She was buried on 12th February 1858 aged 65, the cause of death being paralysis. (Cause of death is only rarely recorded, but for a few years a curate included it when he made entries in the burials register.)

Harriet Bishop died in August 1859 aged only 34; the cause of death is given as dropsy, but we are not told where she was living at the time. Thomas was left a widower with three dependent children.

By 1861 Thomas and the three children had moved to the village. Elizabeth was aged 14, but has no occupation recorded, so she had presumably been unable to find domestic work; I do not know what happened to her. Thomas, aged 12, was a farm labourer who would have been paid a boy’s wage; by 1871 he was married and living on Kingsland. Frank, aged 8, was at school, and may have been a recipient of one of the free places at Newdigate’s Endowed School, on the site of George Horley Place, or may have attended a school in Rusper. He had left the village by 1871, but was buried here in September 1873 aged only 21.

Thomas senior was lodging at Parkgate in 1871, aged 51. He is not in Newdigate in 1881, but in 1891 was lodging on Kingsland, aged 72 and still a farm labourer. He was buried at St. Peter’s in August 1892, with his age given as 75. As often occurred, the details in these records are not entirely reliable: his place of birth was given as Capel in 1851, Horsham in 1861, Capel in 1871 and Newdigate in 1891, and his age at these censuses given as 30, 42, 51 and 72. Probably the age recorded at his burial was a guess made by his closest friends, none of whom knew exactly.

The second cottage was occupied in 1851 by David Bravery, an agricultural labourer aged 41 and born in Rusper, and his family.

His wife Sarah was three years his junior and born in Worth, Sussex. They had moved to Newdigate by 1839, as their daughter Rebecca was born in Newdigate, and they appear in the 1841 census in Laundry Cottage at Lyne. At that date they had four children: Richard aged 7, Sarah aged 5, David aged 4 and Rebecca aged 2, and Lydia [later ‘L. Harriett’] aged 9 months. Also living with them was Mary Read aged 70 and born outside Surrey, who was probably Sarah’s mother-in-law. Her death is not recorded here.

The two older children were not born in Surrey and do not appear in the later censuses, so we do not know where the family moved from; Rusper is likely. David was also not born in Surrey, but he was baptised at St. Peter’s on 12th March 1837 when he was five weeks old, and his father’s occupation was given as ‘groom’. Rebecca and Lydia were both born in Surrey but was not baptised in Newdigate.

It is not clear why David was recorded in 1841 as born out of the county, but in 1851 as born in Newdigate. Possibly there is an error in the 1841 census or my transcription of it; perhaps more likely the family had only just moved then and ten years later were unclear whether David was born before or after the move. Three of the younger children were baptised at St. Peter’s but three were not; either the family were not greatly concerned with the church and only had a child baptised if pushed to do it, or, living right in the south of the parish, they attended Newdigate and Rusper churches indiscriminately and some children were baptised at each.

David senior’s occupation was given in the baptisms register as groom in 1837 and coachman in 1844; by 1849 he was a labourer, and both 1841 and 1851 censuses give his occupation as that of agricultural labourer. Possibly his employment changed, but just as likely is that he was good with horses and worked as a groom and sometimes coachman for the Broadwood family when they were in residence, and also as a carter on the farm, depending on the needs of the family and the urgency of the agricultural work.

In 1851 the family consisted of David, aged 41 and an agricultural labourer, born in Rusper, and his wife Sarah, aged 38 and born in Worth. David junior was aged 14 and a ‘letter carrier’, an early postman. L. Harriet was aged 10, George a scholar aged 7, Mary aged 5, Elizabeth aged 3 and Thomas aged 1. All the younger children were born in Newdigate, and George, Elizabeth and Thomas were baptised here.

Rebecca Bravery, who was aged 12 in 1851, must only just have left home. She was working as a house servant at Pancross Rolls, the farmhouse almost opposite Marshlands Cottages (it was later much enlarged to become The Elms, and is now divided into The Elms and Melton Half).

By 1861 the family had moved out of the parish, and I have no further record of them.

1861 census: Rusper Road cottages

The 1851 census still described Marshland Cottages as ‘New Cottages’. But in 1861 the census-taker described them by their location as ‘Rusper Road cottages’. They are positively identified by their position in the census between ‘Pancross Rolls Farm House’ and ‘Rusper Road Norman Cottage’, the latter now being called Holly Cottage.  The occupants of both cottages had changed again.

In one cottage lived William Banks, a farm labourer aged 36, and his wife Mary, aged 33. Both were born in Newdigate, although neither William, who must have been born in about 1825, nor Mary (née Gad) were baptised here. The 1851 census gives Mary’s place of birth as Capel, although she was apparently not baptised there either. In 1841 William was working at a farm servant aged 15 at Cudworth Manor; Mary Gad was not in the parish.

They married in June 1849. William’s father is given in the register as William Sturt, bricklayer, which probably means that his father had died and William Sturt was his stepfather. Mary signed the register with an X.

In 1861 the couple were living at Coombers Farm with two female lodgers, one a widow, the other Harriet Gad, an unmarried housekeeper of 23 who was probably Mary’s sister or a cousin. William was an agricultural labourer.

They appear to have had no children, and had left the parish by 1871.

The other cottage was occupied by William Truelove, an agricultural labourer aged 44, born in Newdigate, and his wife Hannah, aged 36 and born in Capel. Their eldest two children, Mary aged 11 and William aged 9, were born in Rusper; by late 1853, which Thomas was baptised, they had moved to Newdigate, and four more children were born here. When the last, John, was baptised in 1863, his father’s occupation was given as usual as ‘labourer’, but the register notes that the family were ‘of Mereland’ i.e. Mareland or Marshland; this was an area of the parish and included Marshland Cottages.

By 1871 they had left the parish, and I have no further record of them.

1871 census: Rusper Lane

In 1871 the cottages are again not named, and identified as being on ‘Rusper Lane’. This census is unusual in that it is divided into two parts, the ‘hamlet part’ and the ‘parish part’. These terms relate to the fact that Newdigate was split between two Hundreds, ancient administrative units pre-dating the Norman conquest but which were still retained for some purposes. The ‘hamlet part’ belonged to the Hundred of Reigate and included Parkgate and most of the north-east of the parish, while the ‘parish part’, in the Hundred of Copthorne and Effingham, consisted of the village and most of the centre and south of the parish. But confusingly both parts had detached elements within the other, and for reasons which are lost in history Chaffolds Farm, and the land on which Marshlands Cottages were built, was part of the hamlet. In the census the cottages are recorded between Chaffolds and two cottages on Blanks Lane.

There were again two new families in Marshland Cottages in 1871.

James Mitchell and his wife Mary were aged 70 and 64 respectively, and had Samuel Tugwell, widower aged 74, as a lodger.

Ten years earlier James and Mary Mitchell were living in part of Clarks House in the village (where Church Cottages are now) with Mary’s mother and a lodger; their children, if any, had long since left home. James subsequently died in September 1874 aged 73, and was buried at St. Peter’s. Mary does not appear again in the Newdigate censuses, and probably went to live with a married child after James’s death. She died in August 1893 at the aged of 86, and was also buried at St. Peter’s.

Samuel Tugwell was the same man who lived in Marshland Cottages in 1841. Where he had lived in the meantime is unknown, but he could have worked for the Broadwoods all his life, moving around from one rented cottage to another according to his place of work on the estate and the number and ages of his children. Or he may have moved much more widely around the area. We do not know.

The other cottage was occupied by James Summerfield and his family.

James was aged 39 and a gamekeeper, born in Horsham; his wife Ann was 35 and was born in Newdigate. Their marriage was not here, and we do not know her maiden name. They had five children living with them: James was aged 11 and an agricultural labourer, born in Ifield; Ann and John were aged 8 and 6, both scholars and born in Rusper; Elizabeth, 4, and Alice, 1, were both born in Newdigate. The baptisms register records the baptism of Elizabeth in May 1867, and also of Alice, who was born in March 1870 and baptised two months later.

We know from the next census that they also had an older son, Alfred, who must have been about 14 and was no longer living at home. He had been born in Rusper in about 1857, so the family then moved to Ifield for a few years, were back in Rusper between about 1863 and 1865, before coming to Newdigate before 1867. It was very common for farm labourers to move from one farm to another every few years. At an earlier date most men would have either been on six or twelve month contracts or working piecework as day labourers, but by the early twentieth century most were probably either employed on about eight weeks’ notice on either side or working piecework; I do not know for certain which practice was usual at this time.

Unlike earlier families, the Summerfields stayed at Marshlands Cottages for a long time; in Ann’s case for some sixty years.

1881 census: Rusper Road

The 1881 census again describes the cottages merely as Rusper Road cottages. One is still occupied by James and Ann Summerfield, and in the other, the Mitchells and Samuel Tugwell have been replaced by Alfred Summerfield and his family.

James Summerfield was now 49 and Anne 45. James remained a gamekeeper, which was a crucial job on an estate. Shooting for sport was important to the estate’s owner, who would often entertain friends to a day’s shooting, and a good keeper was highly valued. Provided he continued to do a good job, he might remain in the same employment for many years, and this appears to have been the case with James Summerfield.

In 1881 they still had three children living with them; Anne was aged 18 and unmarried, while Elizabeth and Alice were 14 and 11 respectively and both scholars.

In the other cottage Alfred Summerfield was aged 24, a farm labourer and born in Rusper. At the 1871 census he would have been aged 14 and living independently at the farm where he worked. His wife was Ellen, also aged 24 and born in Ifield, and they had one son, Alfred, aged 10 months old and born in Newdigate. Living with them were Alfred’s brothers James, aged 21 and a farm labourer born in Ifield, and John, aged 16 and a farm labourer born in Rusper.

James and John appear in the previous census, when they were living with their parents in the other cottage, and confirm that Alfred was another son of James and Ann.

From 1885 onwards the electoral system allowed more men to register as voters, and we have some confirmation about where those men who bothered to register were living. Both James and Alfred Summerfield registered at ‘Rusper Lane’ in 1886, and in some but not all years thereafter, suggesting that they did not remain here all the time.

1891 census: Marsh Land cottages

For the first time the name Marshland was attached to the cottages, although it is not actually their name but, like Rusper Lane, a description of their location.  The old farm of Marelands, to the north, was equally commonly called Marshlands Farm, and its land was widely known as Marshland. So although the cottages were, by a matter of yards, on land belonging to Chaffolds, the general area was known as Marshland and these were the cottages at Marshland. This probably became the usual way of identifying them (‘He lives at the cottages down Marshland, about a mile that way. . .’), and eventually became an actual name. A number of other cottages in the parish similarly took their names from the stretches of road they stood on.

Both cottages were again occupied by Summerfields, although in much smaller numbers than previously.

James and Ann Summerfield were now aged 59 and 55 respectively. Their daughter Elizabeth, now aged 24, was still living with them, and apparently unemployed. James was buried in October 1892 at the age of 61.

Their other daughters Alice and Annie had both left the parish, but both were later married at St. Peter’s. They apparently married brothers: Alice, aged 25, to William Lidbetter aged 24, a gardener of East Sheen, in August 1895, and sixteen months later Annie, then aged 33 and described as a servant, place of residence Newdigate, to Lee Lidbetter, aged 33, a gardener of Colgate.

The other cottage was occupied only by James Summerfield junior, aged 31, single, and an agricultural labourer. He married about two years later. His brothers were not living in the parish.

The electoral registers suggest that Alfred lived elsewhere from about 1889 until 1895, when he returned to Newdigate, and that James junior left the parish in about 1893. He had returned by the date of the 1901 census, though his son was born in Rusper in about 1894. He was a gamekeeper in 1907 when his daughter was baptised. The electoral registers merely record the place of residence at the date of registration, so it is possible that Alfred returned when James left.

1901 census: Rusper Lane

The Summerfields remained occupiers of both cottages in 1901.

In one, James junior was now aged 41 and a gamekeeper, living with his wife Martha, aged 32 and born in Henfield, Sussex. They had one son, Sidney Albert, who was aged 7 and a scholar. No Summerfield appears in our surviving school admissions registers, and probably they all attended the school at Rusper. A second son, Frank Robert, was born in about October 1901, but died five months later and was buried at St. Peter’s.

Ann Summerfield, James’s widow, continued to live in the second cottage. She was listed as a widow, aged 65 and living on her own means (savings and whatever she could earn). She lived there for a further twenty-nine years.

John Summerfield had married in about 1899 and was a gardener living in one of the Cidermill farm cottages in 1901, eventually becoming a coachman at Oaklands Park, Partridge Lane. Before that he registered to vote at a variety of places within the parish: Cidermill in 1902, Tanhurst Lane (West Lodge, Rusper Road) from 1903 to 1908, Cidermill Hatch for a year, and then The Stables, Oaklands Park until at least 1918, implying that he was employed as a coachman. His son John was baptised in 1909, ten years after their marriage, and a daughter Alice Florence were baptised in 1914; on both occasions his occupation was given as coachman and place of residence as Oaklands Park. In previous generations husband and wife were usually born in the same part of the country, but John’s wife was born in Leicestershire. Possibly they met when accompanying their respective employers to their London residences; we do not know, but they illustrate the increased movement of people around the country at this time.

1911 census: Marshland Cottages

In one cottage, now identified as no. 1, lived James Summerfield, aged 51 and a gamekeeper, and his wife Martha, aged 42. She had been married for 18 years and had three children, one of whom had died. The other two were living with them: Sydney Albert aged 17, a gardener, and Raymond James aged 3. Also resident was Martha’s older sister Mary, a widow aged 53 who was born in Henfield. Her married surname is difficult to read, possibly Marix.

In the other cottage lived the widow Ann Summerfield and her unmarried daughter Elizabeth. Ann was now aged 75. The census was not interested in the number of children a widow had, so they were deleted, but were filled in on the form as six children, all still living, confirming that Alfred was the eldest. Elizabeth was now aged 43, and supporting herself by needlework.

1911 poor rate: Rusper Lane

In 1911 a full revaluation of property in the parish was undertaken in order to revise the poor rate assessment. James and Ann Summerfield are both living at cottages described as at Rusper Lane, owned by E. Broadwood of Lyne. Both cottages are rated at £7 rental value, typical of older cottages without modern facilities; a modern cottage with running water in the village was rated at £15 or even £17. Interestingly, James’s cottage is described as having two roods of garden (half an acre) while Ann’s has only one rood. In 1924 the two gardens are each of two roods twenty-two perches, so probably James was renting and cultivating half of Ann’s garden in 1911.

James Summerfield was still at Marshland Cottages in about 1912, but in the 1913 electoral register the occupiers of no. 1 were Stephen and Susanna Weller, who were still there in 1924 but left soon after.

James Summerfield is known to have moved to Newchapel near Lingfield. His son Sydney Albert joined up at the end of 1915 and was mobilised in January 1916, but in the middle of March he was admitted to Tidworth Military Hospital and died the same day, aged 21; the cause of death is not known.

One of the surviving later records is the admissions register for Capel Cottage Hospital, which records that on 10th February 1916 Ann Summerfield aged 81 was admitted suffering from cellulitis of the arm. Her occupation was given as ‘housework’. She was discharged, cured, on 28th April, and charged 7s. 6d. per week, a total of £3 15s., which she apparently paid herself. She eventually died in 1930, aged 95, and is buried at St. Peter’s. Her daughter Elizabeth lived with her until her death and then left the parish.

After this the main records are the rate books (between 1930 and 1956) and the electoral registers, which together give us names but little other information. The cottages were owned until after 1956 by Captain Evelyn Henry Tschudi Broadwood, and the rapid change of occupants listed in the rate books before the war confirms that they were rented out. I do not know when the cottages were sold away from the Broadwood estate, although it was most likely after the death of Captain Broadwood in 1975.